- Artist: Harriet Backer
- Creation date: 1883
- Object type: Painting
The title Blue Interior alludes to Harriet Backer’s ambition for the work: to describe how daylight affects the colouring and lighting of an interior. The window is partially hidden behind a dark-blue curtain, and the viewer can only surmise that it is there. Backer lets the sunlight interact seemingly at random with a myriad of reflections and absorbent surfaces. With what she herself dubbed “open-air painting indoors”, she reveals her interest in Claude Monet and the impressionist’s lighting effects. But the picture’s stringent composition, meticulously modelled objects, and dark tones reveal that Backer also related to the academic tradition of painting she had appropriated during her studies in Munich.
In 1884 the Norwegian art critic Andreas Aubert wrote:
“On the whole, interiors are used far too little in our day and age, at least in contemporary depictions. Our homes … have so much beauty, as long as one is aware enough to capture it … in a similar light and clarity as that lavished on outdoor pictures, that is, plein-air painting.”
Aubert’s comment seems to have been inspired by Backer’s use of such interiors. Interiors would become a popular motif in Scandinavian art in the following three decades, not least because of Backer’s art.
Blue Interior was displayed in Copenhagen and Chrristiania already the same year it was painted. Today it is considered to be Backer’s breakthrough painting. On a par with Vilhelm Hammershøi, Anna Ancher, and Carl Larsson, Backer is one of the masters of Scandinavian interior painting and also one of the most influential Norwegian artists of her generation.
Born 1845 in Holmestrand, death 1932 in Oslo
Throughout Harriet Backer's 50-year career, women's rights changed radically. Being a woman and an artist became accepted. Backer was talented and determined, inspiring a new generation of women and men in the Norwegian art world.
In Backer’s family, art and culture were part of how the children were raised. Her older sister Agathe was musically gifted and wanted to become a pianist. She had to go abroad to learn, and Harriet became her sister's traveling companion. This gave Harriet the opportunity to visit art museums and get to know the historical masters of the art world at a young age. Agathe eventually became a renowned composer and concert pianist, while Harriet became an important artist.
Art academies for men only
Backer showed an early talent and interest in art, but embarked on full-time studies rather late in life. In 1874, at 29 years, she decided to travel to Munich. The art community in Norway was small, so one had to go abroad.
The art academies in Europe were reserved for men in those days, but women could receive private tuition or attend "women's classes". During her years in Munich, Backer had several teachers. In 1878 she moved to Paris to continue her studies.
An important recognition
Being accepted for exhibition at the Salon in Paris was an important step on the path to becoming a professional artist. In 1880, Backer was accepted with the painting Solitude. Hundreds of artists exhibited at these exhibitions at the same time, and the paintings hung close together, from floor to ceiling. The jury thought Backer's painting was excellent, and she was honoured with a diploma, known as a Mention honorable.
Contrasts in light and colours
In Munich, Backer learned to paint in a style characterised by a high level of detail and dark colours. We see this for example in Avskjeden (The Farewell), from 1878.
When she came to Paris, she was greatly inspired by impressionism. In one of her best-known paintings, Blått interiør (Blue Interior), painted five years after Avskjeden, the transformation of her painting style is evident. Clear and pure colours dominate the composition. From this point on, the interaction between figure, interior and light effects became a theme that permeated Backer's paintings. How to create contrasts between the light indoors and outdoors? How are colours perceived in lamplight compared to daylight? She approached her subjects with these issues in mind.
Portraits and interiors
Backer started her career with a desire to become a portrait painter. She painted many friends and acquaintances, and also received portrait commissions. But it is her interior scenes she has become best known for. She painted interiors from all walks of life – from farmhouses to bourgeois living rooms. For the most part, Backer's rooms are populated by women.
I think I serve the cause of women best by concentrating like a man
– Harriet Backer
In 1888, Backer established herself in Norway, and from 1892 to 1910 ran a painting school in Kristiania. She became a popular teacher. Her openness to new ideas in both art and social development was appreciated. She sympathised with the women's movement, but did not actively participate in political work.
In the women's cause, Backer was recognised more for what she did than what she said – as a renowned artist she was an important role model. Together with friend and fellow artist Kitty Kielland, she was a pioneer who paved the way for women to have the opportunity to choose art as a career path.
About Harriet Backer:
- Born 21 January 1845 in Holmestrand.
- Lived in Paris in 1878–1888.
- Started an art school in Kristiania in the 1890s. Backer’s students included Nikolai Astrup, Halfdan Egedius, Harald Sohlberg, Henrik Lund, Helga Ring Reusch, Astri Welhaven and Sara Fabricius (Cora Sandel).
- Died 25 March 1932 in Oslo.
- Solitude (1878–1880)
- Blått interiør (Blue Interior) (1883)
- På blekevollen (Bleaching) (1886–1887)
- Ved lampelys (By Lamplight) (1890)
- Barnedåp i Tanum kirke (Baptism at Tanum Church) (1892)
- Inngangskoner (Women in Church) (1892)
- Interiør fra Uvdal stavkirke (Interior from Uvdal Stave Church) (1909)